NASA GHRC Collaboration between NASA MSFC and The University of Alabama in Huntsville
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        With HyDRO, you can search, discover, and filter GHRC's dataset holdings.

        HyDRO will also help you find information about browse imagery, access restrictions, and dataset guide documents.
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      • This is our current OPeNDAP server.

        You can access, download, and subset selected datasets with THREDDS. You can also obtain WMS links and applicable documentation and browse images for some datasets.
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        This web page provides a convenient user interface for casually browsing storm information, including location, category, and wind speed.
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      • Daily averaged temperatures of the Earth are measured by the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on NASA's Aqua satellite.
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    • Hurricane Science
      • GHRC has worked with NASA's Hurricane Science Research Program (HSRP) since the 1990's. We are the archive and distribution center for data collected during HSRP field campaigns, as well as the recent Hurricane Science and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Earth Venture mission. Field campaigns provide for intensive observation of specific phenomena using a variety of instruments on aircraft, satellites and surface networks.

        GHRC also hosts a database of Atlantic and Pacific tropical storm tracks derived from the storm data published by the National Hurricane Center (NHC).
    • HS3 (2012-14)
      • Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is an Earth Ventures – Suborbital 1 mission aimed at better understanding the physical processes that control hurricane intensity change, addressing questions related to the roles of environmental conditions and internal storm structures to storm intensification.

        A variety of in-situ, satellite observations, airborne data, meteorological analyses, and simulation data were collected with missions over the Atlantic in August and September of three observation years (2012, 2013, 2014). These data are available at GHRC beginning in 2015.
    • GRIP (2010)
      • The Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment was a NASA Earth science field experiment in 2010 that was conducted to better understand how tropical storms form and develop into major hurricanes.

        The GRIP deployment was 15 August – 30 September 2010 with bases in Ft. Lauderdale, FL for the DC-8, at Houston, TX for the WB-57, and at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, CA for the Global Hawk.
    • TC4 (2007)
      • The NASA TC4 (Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling) mission investigated the structure and properties of the chemical, dynamic, and physical processes in atmosphere of the tropical Eastern Pacific.

        TC4 was based in San Jose, Costa Rica during July 2007.

        The Real Time Mission Monitor provided simultaneous aircraft status for three aircraft during the TC4 experiment. During TC4, the NASA ER-2, WB-57 and DC-8 aircraft flew missions at various times. The science flights were scheduled between 17 July and 8 August 2007.
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      • The NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) campaign was a field research investigation based in the Cape Verde Islands, 350 miles off the coast of Senegal in west Africa.

        Commenced in August 2006, NASA scientists employed surface observation networks and aircraft to characterize the evolution and structure of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and Mesoscale Convective Systems over continental western Africa, and their associated impacts on regional water and energy budgets.
    • TCSP (2005)
      • The Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) mission was an Earth science field research investigation focused on the study of the dynamics and thermodynamics of precipitating cloud systems and tropical cyclones. TCSP was conducted during the period July 1-27, 2005 out of the Juan Santamaria Airfield in San Jose, Costa Rica.

        The TCSP field experiment flew 12 NASA ER-2 science flights, including missions to Hurricanes Dennis and Emily, Tropical Storm Gert and an eastern Pacific mesoscale complex that may possibly have further developed into Tropical Storm Eugene.
    • ACES (2002)
      • The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) was aimed at better understanding the causes and effects of electrical storms.

        Based at the Naval Air Station Key West in Florida, researchers in August 2002 chased down thunderstorms using an uninhabited aerial vehicle, or "UAV", allowing them to achieve dual goals of gathering weather data safely and testing new aircraft technology. This marked the first time a UAV was used to conduct lightning research.
    • CAMEX-4 (2001)
      • The Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX) was a series of NASA-sponsored hurricane science field research investigations. The fourth field campaign in the CAMEX series (CAMEX-4) was held in 16 August - 24 September, 2001 and was based out of Jacksonville Naval Air Station, Florida.

        CAMEX-4 was focused on the study of tropical cyclone (hurricane) development, tracking, intensification, and landfalling impacts using NASA-funded aircraft and surface remote sensing instrumentation.
    • CAMEX-3 (1998)
      • The Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX) is a series of hurricane science field research investigations sponsored by NASA. The third field campaign in the CAMEX series (CAMEX-3) was based at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida from 6 August - 23 September, 1998.

        CAMEX-3 successfully studied Hurricanes Bonnie, Danielle, Earl and Georges, yielding data on hurricane structure, dynamics, and motion. CAMEX-3 collected data for research in tropical cyclone development, tracking, intensification, and landfalling impacts using NASA-funded aircraft and surface remote sensing instrumentation.
    • GPM Ground Validation
      • The NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) program includes the following field campaigns:

        a) LPVEx, Gulf of Finland in autumn 2010, to study rainfall in high latitude environments

        b) MC3E, cental Oklahoma spring and early summer 2011, to develop a complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation and the environment

        c) GCPEx, Ontario, Canada winter of 2011-2012, direct and remove sensing observations, and coordinated model simulations of precipitating snow.

        d) IFloodS, Iowa, spring and early summer 2013, to study the relative roles of rainfall quantities and other factors in flood genesis.

        e) IPHEx, N. Carolina Appalachians/Piedmont region May-June 2014, for hydrologic validation over varied topography.

        f) OLYMPEx, Washington's Olympic Peninsula scheduled November 2015-February 2016, for hydrologic validation in extreme coastal and topographic gradients
    • OLYMPEX (Upcoming)
      • The OLYMPEX field campaign is scheduled to take place between November, 2015, and February, 2016, on the Olympic Peninsula in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

        This field campaign will provide ground-based validation support of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite program that is a joint effort between NASA and JAXA.

        As for all GPM-GV campaigns, the GHRC will provide a collaboration portal to help investigators exchange planning information and to support collection of real-time data as well as mission science, project and instrument status reports during the campaign.
    • IPHEx (2014)
      • The Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) was conducted in North Carolina during the months of April-June, 2014.

        IPHEx sought to characterize warm season orographic precipitation regimes, and the relationship between precipitation regimes and hydrologic processes in regions of complex terrain.
    • IFLOODs (2013)
      • The Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) experiment was conducted in the central to northeastern part of Iowa in Midwestern United States during the months of April-June, 2013.

        IFloodS' primary goal was to discern the relative roles of rainfall quantities such as rate and accumulation as compared to other factors (e.g. transport of water in the drainage network) in flood genesis.
    • GCPEX (2011-2012)
      • The GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) occurred in Ontario, Canada during the winter season (Jan 15- Feb 26) of 2011-2012.

        GCPEx addressed shortcomings in GPM snowfall retrieval algorithm by collecting microphysical properties, associated remote sensing observations, and coordinated model simulations of precipitating snow. Collectively the GCPEx data set provides a high quality, physically-consistent and coherent data set suited to the development and testing of GPM snowfall retrieval algorithm physics.
    • MC3E (2011)
      • The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place in central Oklahoma during the April–June 2011 period.

        The overarching goal was to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that had never before been available.
    • LPVEx (2010)
      • The Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEx) took place in the Gulf of Finland in September and October, 2010 and collected microphysical properties, associated remote sensing observations, and coordinated model simulations of high latitude precipitation systems to drive the evaluation and development of precipitation algorithms for current and future satellite platforms.

        In doing so, LPVEx sought to address the general lack of dedicated ground-validation datasets from the ongoing development of new or improved algorithms for detecting and quantifying high latitude rainfall
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      • DISCOVER was funded by NASA’s MEaSUREs program to provide highly accurate, multi-decadal geophysical products derived from satellite microwave sensors.
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      • The SANDS project addressed Gulf of Mexico Alliance priority issues by generating enhanced imagery from MODIS and Landsat data to identify suspended sediment resulting from tropical cyclones. These tropical cyclones have significantly altered normal coastal processes and characteristics in the Gulf region through sediment disturbance.
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      • The Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) system provides access to near real-time data (less than 3 hours from observation) from AIRS, AMSR2, MLS, MODIS, and OMI instruments. LANCE AMSR2 products are generated by the AMSR Science Investigator-led Processing System at the GHRC.
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DOCUMENTATION

Documentation

Guide Documents

Dataset PI Documents

Dataset Software

GPM Ground Validation NOAA S-Band Profiler Minute Data MC3E
GPM Ground Validation NOAA S-Band Profiler Original Dwell Data MC3E
GPM Ground Validation NOAA S-Band Profiler Raw Data netCDF format MC3E
GPM Ground Validation NOAA S-Band Profiler Raw Data SPC format MC3E

Table of Contents

Introduction
Campaign
Instrument Description
Investigators
File Naming Convention
Data Format
Citation
References
Contact Information

Introduction

The NOAA S-Band Profiler data was gathered during the MC3E campaign in Oklahoma April-June 2011. The S-band profiler was deployed at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility. Measurements of the vertical structure of precipitation from approximately 200 meters to 16 km were taken as precipitation passed over the profiler site. Further details are available in the Principal Investigator's document ftp://ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov/pub/doc/gpmgv/mc3e/gpmsbandmc3e/MC3E_NOAA_Sband_Profiler_Description_2012-1209.pdf.

The S-band Profiler Minute Dwell dataset is in netCDF format, and spectra and moment files are included. For the S-band Profiler Original Dwell dataset, the data is in hourly files in netCDF format. The S-band Profiler Raw dataset was saved in two data formats: netCDF and a proprietary Vaisala SPC format. The numeric values in both formats are exactly the same. The raw datasets consist of uncalibrated Doppler velocity spectra data in units of relative power return. For the proprietary Vaisala SPC format, specialized read software may be purchased from Vaisala.

When the S-band Profiler and the NOAA 449 MHz Profiler raw data files are used together, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. Additional details on the 449 MHz Profiler Raw dataset are available here.

Campaign

The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place in central Oklahoma during the April-June 2011 period. The experiment was a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leveraged the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors, and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal was to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that had never before been available.

Further details on GPM MC3E are available at http://gpm.nsstc.nasa.gov/mc3e/. Information on MC3E ARM is available at http://campaign.arm.gov/mc3e/.

Instrument Description

The S-band profiler operates at 2.8 GHz, points vertically, and measures the backscattered power from raindrops and ice particles as precipitating cloud systems pass overhead. The S-band operated in two modes: precipitation mode and attenuated mode. The precipitation mode was the normal or full-power mode, and the attenuated mode was the low-power mode. The profiler alternated between modes collecting either 7 or 9 consecutive precipitation mode profiles separated by 1 attenuated mode profile. Both modes processed radar pulses collected during a 7-second dwell before calculating the Doppler velocity spectra at each radar range gate that were separated by 60-meters in the vertical. The attenuated and precipitation mode data are available in moment, pop spectra (uncalibrated raw spectra) and calibrated spectra hourly files. The S-band spectra were calibrated against the surface disdrometer to determine a radar calibration constant. Calibrated spectra were constructed for each profile and are expressed as reflectivity spectral density. After calibration, the instrument provides an unattenuated reflectivity estimate through the precipitation.

Further details on the NOAA S-band precipitation profiler are available at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/obs/instruments/SbandDescription.html.

Investigators

Christopher R. Williams, Ph.D., PMP
CIRES Research Scientist
University of Colorado at Boulder
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES)
Boulder, CO 80309-0216

File Naming Convention

Data and browse files are of the form:

sgp<data_type><mode><data_name>C1.<data_level>.yyyymmdd.hhmmss.mc3e.nc
sgp<data_type><mode><data_name>C1.<data_level>.yyyymmdd.hhmmss.<file_type>.mc3e.tif
sgp<data_type>C1.<data_level>.yyyymmdd.hhmmss.lmc_yydddhhmmss<mode>_SM.nc
sgp<data_type>C1.<data_level>.yyyymmdd.hhmmss.raw.[D|H]lmc0000000<mode>.SPC.tar.gz

where

mode = (precip/P = precipitation, atten/A = attenuated)
sgp = Southern Great Plains
data_type = (sbd = S-band Profiler Original Dwell, 1sbd = S-band Profiler Minute)
C1 = Central Facility
data_level = (00 = raw, a1 = raw counts converted to geophysical units)
yyyymmdd = year, month, day
yyddd = year, day of year
hhmmss = hour, minutes, seconds
data_name = (mom = calibrated moments, spc = calibrated spectra, pop = POP spectra)
SPC = spectra
file_type = (daily, hourly)
lm = Lamont, OK
mc3e = Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment
nc = netCDF
tif = tagged image file
tar = Unix "tape archive" format
gz = gzipped

Data Format

The NOAA S-band Profiler Minute Dwell, Original Dwell and Raw datasets are in netCDF format. Addtionally the S-band Profiler Raw dataset was saved in a proprietary Vaisala SPC format. For the Raw dataset, the numeric values in both formats are exactly the same. Specialized read software may be purchased from Vaisala for the SPC format. Further format details are available in the Principal Investigator's document ftp://ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov/pub/doc/gpmgv/mc3e/gpmsbandmc3e/MC3E_NOAA_Sband_Profiler_Description_2012-1209.pdf.

Citation

Our data sets are provided through the NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). GHRC DAAC is one of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data centers that are part of the ESDIS project. ESDIS data are not copyrighted; however, in the event that you publish our data or results derived by using our data, we request that you include an acknowledgment within the text of the article and a citation on your reference list. Examples for general acknowledgments, data set citation in a reference listing, and crediting online web images and information can be found at: http://ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov/uso/citation.html

References

White, A. B., J. R. Jordan, B. E. Martner, F. M. Ralph, and B. W. Bartram, 2000: Extending the dynamic range of an S-band radar for cloud and precipitation studies. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,17,1226-1234.

Ecklund, W. L., C. R. Williams, P. E. Johnston, and K. S. Gage, 1999:A 3-GHz profiler for precipitating cloud studies. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16, 309.322.

Matrosov, S.Y., R. Cifelli, P.C. Kennedy, S.W. Nesbitt, and S.A. Rutledge (2006) A comparative study of rainfall rate retrievals based on specific differential phase shift measurements and X- and S-band radar frequencies. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 23, 952-963.

Contact Information

To order these data or for further information, please contact:

Global Hydrology Resource Center
User Services
320 Sparkman Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone: 256-961-7932
E-mail: support-ghrc@earthdata.nasa.gov
Web: http://ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov/

 

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