NASA GHRC Collaboration between NASA MSFC and The University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Access Data
    • Dataset List (HyDRO)
      • View a list of all GHRC dataset holdings using our custom search tool, HyDRO.
    • Search (HyDRO)
      • HyDRO is GHRC's custom dataset search and order tool.

        With HyDRO, you can search, discover, and filter GHRC's dataset holdings.

        HyDRO will also help you find information about browse imagery, access restrictions, and dataset guide documents.
    • Coincidence Search
      • The GHRC Coincidence Search Engine (CSE) may be used to search for times when up to four satellites were over or within the same geographic area simultaneously.

        Searches may be constrained by time, geographic area, and/or distance between the satellites.
    • THREDDS
      • This is our current OPeNDAP server.

        You can access, download, and subset selected datasets with THREDDS. You can also obtain WMS links and applicable documentation and browse images for some datasets.
    • Storm Tracks DB
      • The Tropical Storm Tracks database is derived from the storm data published by the National Hurricane Center (NHC).

        This web page provides a convenient user interface for casually browsing storm information, including location, category, and wind speed.
    • AMSU Temp Trends
      • Daily averaged temperatures of the Earth are measured by the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on NASA's Aqua satellite.
    • NASA Earthdata Search
      • Earthdata is NASA's next generation metadata and service discovery tool, providing search and access capabilities for dataset holdings at all of the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) including the GHRC.
    • Latest Data (HyDRO)
      • View the latest additions to our data holdings using HyDRO.
  • Measurements
  • Field Campaigns
    • Hurricane Science
      • GHRC has worked with NASA's Hurricane Science Research Program (HSRP) since the 1990's. We are the archive and distribution center for data collected during HSRP field campaigns, as well as the recent Hurricane Science and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Earth Venture mission. Field campaigns provide for intensive observation of specific phenomena using a variety of instruments on aircraft, satellites and surface networks.

        GHRC also hosts a database of Atlantic and Pacific tropical storm tracks derived from the storm data published by the National Hurricane Center (NHC).
    • HS3 (2012-14)
      • Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is an Earth Ventures – Suborbital 1 mission aimed at better understanding the physical processes that control hurricane intensity change, addressing questions related to the roles of environmental conditions and internal storm structures to storm intensification.

        A variety of in-situ, satellite observations, airborne data, meteorological analyses, and simulation data were collected with missions over the Atlantic in August and September of three observation years (2012, 2013, 2014). These data are available at GHRC beginning in 2015.
    • GRIP (2010)
      • The Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment was a NASA Earth science field experiment in 2010 that was conducted to better understand how tropical storms form and develop into major hurricanes.

        The GRIP deployment was 15 August – 30 September 2010 with bases in Ft. Lauderdale, FL for the DC-8, at Houston, TX for the WB-57, and at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, CA for the Global Hawk.
    • TC4 (2007)
      • The NASA TC4 (Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling) mission investigated the structure and properties of the chemical, dynamic, and physical processes in atmosphere of the tropical Eastern Pacific.

        TC4 was based in San Jose, Costa Rica during July 2007.

        The Real Time Mission Monitor provided simultaneous aircraft status for three aircraft during the TC4 experiment. During TC4, the NASA ER-2, WB-57 and DC-8 aircraft flew missions at various times. The science flights were scheduled between 17 July and 8 August 2007.
    • NAMMA (2006)
      • The NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) campaign was a field research investigation based in the Cape Verde Islands, 350 miles off the coast of Senegal in west Africa.

        Commenced in August 2006, NASA scientists employed surface observation networks and aircraft to characterize the evolution and structure of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and Mesoscale Convective Systems over continental western Africa, and their associated impacts on regional water and energy budgets.
    • TCSP (2005)
      • The Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) mission was an Earth science field research investigation focused on the study of the dynamics and thermodynamics of precipitating cloud systems and tropical cyclones. TCSP was conducted during the period July 1-27, 2005 out of the Juan Santamaria Airfield in San Jose, Costa Rica.

        The TCSP field experiment flew 12 NASA ER-2 science flights, including missions to Hurricanes Dennis and Emily, Tropical Storm Gert and an eastern Pacific mesoscale complex that may possibly have further developed into Tropical Storm Eugene.
    • ACES (2002)
      • The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) was aimed at better understanding the causes and effects of electrical storms.

        Based at the Naval Air Station Key West in Florida, researchers in August 2002 chased down thunderstorms using an uninhabited aerial vehicle, or "UAV", allowing them to achieve dual goals of gathering weather data safely and testing new aircraft technology. This marked the first time a UAV was used to conduct lightning research.
    • CAMEX-4 (2001)
      • The Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX) was a series of NASA-sponsored hurricane science field research investigations. The fourth field campaign in the CAMEX series (CAMEX-4) was held in 16 August - 24 September, 2001 and was based out of Jacksonville Naval Air Station, Florida.

        CAMEX-4 was focused on the study of tropical cyclone (hurricane) development, tracking, intensification, and landfalling impacts using NASA-funded aircraft and surface remote sensing instrumentation.
    • CAMEX-3 (1998)
      • The Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX) is a series of hurricane science field research investigations sponsored by NASA. The third field campaign in the CAMEX series (CAMEX-3) was based at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida from 6 August - 23 September, 1998.

        CAMEX-3 successfully studied Hurricanes Bonnie, Danielle, Earl and Georges, yielding data on hurricane structure, dynamics, and motion. CAMEX-3 collected data for research in tropical cyclone development, tracking, intensification, and landfalling impacts using NASA-funded aircraft and surface remote sensing instrumentation.
    • GPM Ground Validation
      • The NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) program includes the following field campaigns:

        a) LPVEx, Gulf of Finland in autumn 2010, to study rainfall in high latitude environments

        b) MC3E, cental Oklahoma spring and early summer 2011, to develop a complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation and the environment

        c) GCPEx, Ontario, Canada winter of 2011-2012, direct and remove sensing observations, and coordinated model simulations of precipitating snow.

        d) IFloodS, Iowa, spring and early summer 2013, to study the relative roles of rainfall quantities and other factors in flood genesis.

        e) IPHEx, N. Carolina Appalachians/Piedmont region May-June 2014, for hydrologic validation over varied topography.

        f) OLYMPEx, Washington's Olympic Peninsula scheduled November 2015-February 2016, for hydrologic validation in extreme coastal and topographic gradients
    • OLYMPEX (Upcoming)
      • The OLYMPEX field campaign is scheduled to take place between November, 2015, and February, 2016, on the Olympic Peninsula in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

        This field campaign will provide ground-based validation support of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite program that is a joint effort between NASA and JAXA.

        As for all GPM-GV campaigns, the GHRC will provide a collaboration portal to help investigators exchange planning information and to support collection of real-time data as well as mission science, project and instrument status reports during the campaign.
    • IPHEx (2014)
      • The Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) was conducted in North Carolina during the months of April-June, 2014.

        IPHEx sought to characterize warm season orographic precipitation regimes, and the relationship between precipitation regimes and hydrologic processes in regions of complex terrain.
    • IFLOODs (2013)
      • The Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) experiment was conducted in the central to northeastern part of Iowa in Midwestern United States during the months of April-June, 2013.

        IFloodS' primary goal was to discern the relative roles of rainfall quantities such as rate and accumulation as compared to other factors (e.g. transport of water in the drainage network) in flood genesis.
    • GCPEX (2011-2012)
      • The GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) occurred in Ontario, Canada during the winter season (Jan 15- Feb 26) of 2011-2012.

        GCPEx addressed shortcomings in GPM snowfall retrieval algorithm by collecting microphysical properties, associated remote sensing observations, and coordinated model simulations of precipitating snow. Collectively the GCPEx data set provides a high quality, physically-consistent and coherent data set suited to the development and testing of GPM snowfall retrieval algorithm physics.
    • MC3E (2011)
      • The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place in central Oklahoma during the April–June 2011 period.

        The overarching goal was to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that had never before been available.
    • LPVEx (2010)
      • The Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEx) took place in the Gulf of Finland in September and October, 2010 and collected microphysical properties, associated remote sensing observations, and coordinated model simulations of high latitude precipitation systems to drive the evaluation and development of precipitation algorithms for current and future satellite platforms.

        In doing so, LPVEx sought to address the general lack of dedicated ground-validation datasets from the ongoing development of new or improved algorithms for detecting and quantifying high latitude rainfall
  • Projects
    • HS3 Suborbital Mission
      • Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is an Earth Ventures – Suborbital 1 mission aimed at better understanding the physical processes that control hurricane intensity change, addressing questions related to the roles of environmental conditions and internal storm structures to storm intensification.
    • DISCOVER - MEaSUREs
      • DISCOVER was funded by NASA’s MEaSUREs program to provide highly accurate, multi-decadal geophysical products derived from satellite microwave sensors.
    • LIS Mission
      • Lightning observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensors (LIS) aboard the NASA’s TRMM satellite and International Space Station, as well as airborne observations and ground validation data.
    • SANDS
      • The SANDS project addressed Gulf of Mexico Alliance priority issues by generating enhanced imagery from MODIS and Landsat data to identify suspended sediment resulting from tropical cyclones. These tropical cyclones have significantly altered normal coastal processes and characteristics in the Gulf region through sediment disturbance.
    • LANCE AMSR2
      • The Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) system provides access to near real-time data (less than 3 hours from observation) from AIRS, AMSR2, MLS, MODIS, and OMI instruments. LANCE AMSR2 products are generated by the AMSR Science Investigator-led Processing System at the GHRC.
  • Resources
    • Tools & Technologies
      • A collection of tools & technologies developed and/or used by GHRC.
    • Publications
      • View GHRC & ITSC publications on the ITSC website
    • Innovations Lab
      • The GHRC Innovations Lab is a showcase for emerging geoinformatics technologies resulting from NASA-sponsored research at the University of Alabama in Huntsville.
    • Educational Resources
      • A list of resources from NASA, MSFC, and other sources for teachers and students focused on global change, hydrology, and science education.
    • Referencing our data
      • GHRC dataset citation help and examples.
    • Documents
      • Documentation related to GHRC datasets, software, and other offerings.
    • Glossary
      • Terms and their definitions
    • Featured items
      • The latest tools from GHRC.
  • Multimedia
  • About
    • Welcome
      • Local resources, lodging information, and weather to help you plan your visit to GHRC.
    • GHRC Personnel
      • A list to help you keep in touch with our personnel
    • FAQ
      • Frequently Asked Questions about GHRC data and services, and their answers.
    • Data Citations and Acknowledgements
      • GHRC dataset citation help and examples
  • Cite Us
  • Contact Us
feedback
DOCUMENTATION

Documentation

Guide Documents

Dataset PI Documents

Dataset Software

RSS Monthly 1-deg Microwave Total Precipitable Water netCDF

Table of Contents

Introduction
Instrument Description
Investigators
File Naming Convention
Data Format
Algorithm and Processing Steps

Read Software
Tools
Citation
References
Contact Information

Introduction

The RSS Monthly 1-degree Microwave Total Precipitable Water (TPW) netCDF data set contains monthly mean TPW on a one degree grid, a climatology file containing a set of twelve monthly TPW means on a one degree grid, and a trend file containing the cumulative global TPW trend map on a one degree grid and the time-latitude plot. This data set was constructed using the version- 7 (V7) passive microwave geophysical ocean products made publicly available from Remote Sensing Systems (www.remss.com). The TPW values come from the following satellite radiometers: SSM/I F08 through F15, SSMIS F16 and F17, AMSR-E, and WindSat. The microwave radiometers were carefully inter-calibrated at the brightness temperature level and the V7 ocean products were produced using a consistent processing methodology for all sensors. The high quality ocean data is made available thanks to funding from the NASA MEaSUREs (Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments) project. The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC), a NASA science data center managed by the University of Alabama in Huntsville, processes the cumulative TPW files from RSS into monthly files. The GHRC also provides the cumulative 20 year climatology file and the cumulative trend files. This data set contains both netCDF3 and netCDF4 formatted files.

Instrument Description

The data used to make the RSS Monthly 1-degree Microwave Total Precipitable Water (TPW) netCDF product are from all SSM/I instruments, SSMIS F16 and F17, AMSR-E, and WindSat. SSM/I and SSMIS are instruments carried onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series of polar orbiting satellites. The Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) is a seven channel passive microwave radiometer operating at four frequencies and dual-polarization. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) is also a microwave radiometer that includes a sounder. Additional information on the SSM/I and the SSMIS can be found at http://www.ssmi.com/ssmi/. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E) is one of six sensors aboard Aqua. AMSR-E is a twelve-channel, six-frequency, total power passive-microwave radiometer. More information on AMSR-E can be found at http://wwwghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/AMSR/. WindSat is a satellite-based polarimetric microwave radiometer which measures ocean surface wind vectors. WindSat is aboard the Coriolis satellite. More information on WindSat can be found at http://weather.msfc.nasa.gov/sport/windsat/. More information on Coriolis can be found at http://www.orbital.com/SatellitesSpace/ImagingDefense/Coriolis/.

Investigators

Frank Wentz
Remote Sensing Systems
438 First Street, Suite 200
Santa Rosa, CA 95401

File Naming Convention

The monthly files are named with the following convention:

tpw_v07r00_[YYYYMM].nc[3 or 4].nc

where,

tpw = total precipitable water
v07 = data made from version-7 RSS data
r00 = file revision number (e.g., 00 being the original version of TPW product)
YYYYMM = the year and month of the file
nc[3 or 4] = netCDF3 or netCDF4 format
nc = netCDF file format

The cumulative and climatology files are named with the following convention:

tpw_v07r00_198801_[YYYYMM]_cumulative.nc[3 or 4].nc
tpw_v07r00_ 1988_[YYYY]_climatology.nc[3 or 4].nc

where,

tpw = total precipitable water
v07 = data made from version-7 RSS data
r00 = file revision number (e.g., 00 being the original version of TPW product)
198801 = the starting year and month of the cumulative data
1988 = the starting year of the climatology data
YYYYMM = the last year and month in the cumulative file
YYYY = the ending year of the climatology data
nc[3 or 4] = netCDF3 or netCDF4 format
nc = netCDF file format

Data Format

Two netCDF formats, netCDF3 and netCDF4, are available for the RSS Monthly 1-degree Microwave TPW data. The same information is available in both formats.

The monthly data files contain the following defined fields:

global_mean_precipitable_water_anomaly
latitude
latitude_bounds
longitude
longitude_bounds
platform_names
precipitable_water
precipitable_water_anomaly
satellites_used
time
time_bounds
tropical_mean_precipitable_water_anomaly

The cumulative data files contain the following defined fields:

latitude
latitude_bounds
longitude
longitude_bounds
time
time_bounds
time_lat_precipitable_water_anomaly

The cumulative climatology data files contain the following defined fields:

climatology_time
climatology_time_bounds
latitude
latitude_bounds
longitude
longitude_bounds
precipitable_water_climatology

Algorithm and Processing Steps

The Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data are produced as part of NASA's MEaSUREs Program. Remote Sensing Systems generates SSM/I and SSMIS data products using a unified, physically based algorithm to simultaneously retrieve ocean wind speed (at 10 meters), atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water, and rain rate. This algorithm is a product of 20 years of refinements, improvements, and verifications. While the algorithms have evolved over time, a substantial background to the radiative transfer function used to derive the geophysical parameters is described in the following papers:

Read Software

netCDF

The netCDF library is used to read or write netCDF files. It is available for several languages, including Java, C++, C, FORTRAN, and others. At the time of this writing, the netCDF-Java library is at version 4.2 and the C/C++ libraries are also at version 4.2. Version 4.2 or later is recommended, as earlier versions may not fully support the compression and chunking options used in the SSM/I and SSMIS files. The netCDF and netCDF-Java libraries can be downloaded free of charge from NCSA at http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/downloads/netcdf/. Java JAR files are available that have the dependencies in-place, making a project setup much easier. For other languages, other libraries must be obtained in binary form and installed, or compiled from source code.

HDF 5

Since netCDF is based on HDF 5, the HDF version 5 library is required. At the time of this writing, HDF5-1.8.9 is the latest version. This version or later is recommended. HDF can be downloaded free of charge from NCSA at http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5/release/obtain5.html. Note that NSCA provides pre-compiled binaries for many platforms or source code if you wish to go through the trouble of customizing a library for your system.

SZIP

HDF 5 requires the SZIP library to perform compression. SZIP can be downloaded free of charge from the NCSA site at http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5/release/obtain5.html. NCSA provides pre-compiled binaries or source code for this package.

ZLIB

HDF 5 requires the ZLIB library to perform compression. ZLIB can be downloaded free of charge from the NCSA site at http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5/release/obtain5.html. NCSA provides pre-compiled binaries or source code for this package.

JPEG

HDF 5 requires the JPEG library to perform compression. JPEG can be downloaded free of charge from the NCSA site at http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5/release/obtain5.html. NCSA provides pre-compiled binaries or source code for this package.

More information about the software required and how to link and compile the software can be found in the SSM/I and SSMIS Data in NetCDF User's Guide. There is also a sample read program available at ftp://ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov/pub/doc/ssmi_netcdf/ReadNetCDF.c.

Tools

There are a number of freeware packages that can be downloaded to examine and manipulate netCDF files. Many of these can be found at the HDF-EOS web site, http://hdfeos.org/software.

Panoply is a cross-platform Java application which plots geo-gridded arrays from netCDF data sets. There are versions specific for Mac OS X and Windows, as well as generic versions for other platforms that support Java 6. Panoply is available at http://www.giss.nasa.gov/tools/panoply/ .

The Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) is a Java-based software framework for analyzing and visualizing geoscience data. The IDV is developed at the Unidata Program Center (UPC), part of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), Boulder, Colorado, which is funded by the National Science Foundation. The software is freely available under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License, and is available at http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/software/idv/.

GLIDER, http://miningsolutions.itsc.uah.edu/glider/content/glider-features, is a free tool to easily visualize, analyze and mine satellite imagery. GLIDER allows users to visualize and analyze satellite data in its native sensor view. Users can enhance the image by applying different image processing algorithms on the data. GLIDER provides the users with a full suite of pattern recognition and data mining algorithms that can be applied to the satellite imagery to extract thematic information. The suite of algorithms includes both supervised and unsupervised classification algorithms. In addition, users can project satellite imagery and analysis/mining results onto a 3D globe for visualization. GLIDER also allows users to add additional layers to the globe along with the projected image. Users can open multiple views within GLIDER to manage, visualize and analyze many data files all at once.

Citation

Our data sets are provided through the NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). GHRC DAAC is one of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data centers that are part of the ESDIS project. ESDIS data are not copyrighted; however, in the event that you publish our data or results derived by using our data, we request that you include an acknowledgment within the text of the article and a citation on your reference list. Examples for general acknowledgments, data set citation in a reference listing, and crediting online web images and information can be found at: http://ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov/uso/citation.html

References

Wentz F. J. 1997, "A well-calibrated ocean algorithm for SSM/I", J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 102, No. C4, pg. 8703-8718.

Wentz Frank J. 2013, "SSM/I Version-7 Calibration Report", Remote Sensing Systems, Santa Rosa, CA.

Wentz, Frank J. and Roy W. Spencer, May 1, 1998, "SSM/I Rain Retrievals within a Unified All-Weather Ocean Algorithm", Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 55, pg. 1613-1627.

Wentz, Frank J. and Thomas Meissner, 2000, "AMSR Ocean Algorithm, Version 2", report number 121599A-1, Remote Sensing Systems, Santa Rosa, CA, 66 pp.

Wentz, Frank J. and Thomas Meissner, 2007, "Supplement 1 Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for AMSR-E Ocean Algorithms", Remote Sensing Systems, Santa Rosa, CA.

Description of Remote Sensing Systems Version-7 Geophysical Retrievals by Hilburn et al., 2010.

Contact Information

To order these data or for further information, please contact:

Global Hydrology Resource Center
User Services
320 Sparkman Drive
Huntsville, AL 35805
Phone: 256-961-7932
E-mail: support-ghrc@earthdata.nasa.gov
Web: http://ghrc.nsstc.nasa.gov/

 

ITSC

UAH

RSS feed GHRC Facebook GHRC Twitter

NASA Official:
Rahul Ramachandran

Website maintained by the
UAH ITSC Web Team

If you have trouble viewing or
navigating this page, please contact
GHRC User Services

NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices


    The GHRC is a member of the ICSU World Data System